Three scientific advances were absolutely critical in the creation of the pale lager famly: discovery of yeast, innovations in kilning, and the invention of refrigeration.
The isolation of the lager yeast strain was a pinnacle moment for brewers. They could finally learn how to control and perfect lager fermentation which.
The Brits discovered that kilning over coke (coal heated in the absence of oxygen) could successfully produce pale malts.
Lager yeast requires cooler temperatures for fermentation. This invention allowed the Germans to brew a more consistent product year round and also helped it better survive exportation.
Amber Lager and Dark Lager
The color of beer is directly related to its malts. The fermentable sugar in the majority of craft beer comes from malted barley that has been germinated and kilned. Additional color and malt flavor come from the roasting process. No roast to light roast yields straw and golden colors and biscuit flavors. Medium roast yields amber and copper colors and caramel and nut flavors. Dark roast yields brown and light black colors and chocolate and coffee flavors, and the heaviest roast yields black color and burnt flavors.
Don't let color deceive you! Dark doesn't mean it's heavy and just because a beer is pale, doesn't mean it's light in other ways.
India Pale Ale
It is the most brewed, drank, and celebrated style of craft beer in the world.
There are 4 defined categories of IPA. English IPA, American IPA, imperial/double IPA, and American Black Ale.
English IPA is golden amber, grassy, fruity, caramel, bready, toffee-like, slight hop bite, dry mineral finish.
American IPA is golden, effervescent, sometimes cloudy, citrusy, resinous, honey, floral,and very bitter.
Imperial/double IPA is golden amber, often hazy, abrasively bitter, citrus pith, pine, boozy, light malt sweetness, dry finish.
American Black is very dark to black, roasty, strong hop aroma, chocolate, coffee, light caramel, citrus, pine, bold bitterness.
The "other" IPA's:
India Session Ale
The star ingredient in Belgian beer is actually yeast. Belgium is also the origin of spontaneously fermented, sour beers.
Belgian Blonde Ale is deep gold, brilliant, dense white head, perfumy, spicy, lemon peel, honeysuckle, super bubbly.
Belgian Tripel is deep yellow, super effervescent, huge head, lemon peel, orange, banana, clove, dry.
Belgian Dubbel is dark copper, large dense head, raisins, figs, chocolate chip cookie dough, chewy.
Stout is a dark beer made using malted or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast.
The stout was a stronger, more aggressively hopped beer designed to survive a long export.
One sip and you'll either love or hate the jet black, rich, deep, complex flavors of chocolate, coffee, dark fruit, caramel, burnt bread, raisins, and plums.
Malt: barley or other grain that has been steeped, germinated, and dried, used especially for brewing or distilling
Hops: one of the basic ingredients in beer brewing, hops contain an essential oil with a very bitter flavor. This bitterness counters the sweetness from the malt to create a more balanced beer, and it also acts as a preservative.
Kiln: Kilning is the last stage of the malting process, in which the germinated malt is heated to stop the growth and render it shelf-stable.